octan physics, as presented in section 2.3 of Fleegello's

Fleegello's fictitious critique of octan physics represents an attempt to examine human physics from a speculative ideobasic perspective (developed in **Part I** and **Part II** of Appendix E). According to ideobasism, our physical universe is one self-contained subset of a larger, complete set of abstract mathematical objects that both define spatial-temporal relationships and are compatible with consistency logic. This idea is similar to the **mathematical universe** hypothesis proposed by the cosmologist **Max Tegmart**. **[1]**

The discussion addresses in particular two paradigm shifts that revolutionized twentieth century science here on Earth — **quantum physics** **[2]** and **relativity theory** **[3]****[4]**. Much of the standard quantum mechanics content can be found in modern textbooks. **[5]****[6]** Further discussion and references concerning both quantum and relativity theory, including interpretations of the probabilistic character of quantum physics, and how human ideas connect with octan thought, are provided in the **commentary section on octan philosophy**.

In Jopian culture, non-relativistic quantum theory is also known as Shrodiik physics, in honor of the fictional physicist Shrodo. This name was inspired by **Erwin Schrödinger**, an important contributor to the development of human quantum mechanics. **[7]** Relativity theory on Jopitar was pioneered by the fictitious Niestu. This name evokes **Albert Einstein**, who introduced both the **special theory** and the **general theory of relativity** on our own planet. **[8]** Einstein did not actually coin the term *relativity theory*, and was supposedly not entirely happy with it, as the label was often misinterpreted to suggest "everything is relative." Yet even though it overturned the absolute space and time of Newtonian physics, the new theory was actually based on absolutes – in particular, the invariance of the laws of physics and the speed of light for all **inertial observers**. Einstein is thought to have originally preferred the term *invariance theory*. **[9]** While this did not catch on in human society, on Jopitar Niestu's theories are known as the theories of inertial invariance and general invariance.

The **multi-time formulation** of quantum mechanics (attributed in the text to the octan physicist Draci) dates back at least to a paper published in 1932 by **Paul Dirac**, **[10]** in an attempt to incorporate special relativity into quantum physics. He and others soon argued (within certain assumptions) that relativistic **quantum field theory** (QFT) was a mathematically equivalent but simpler solution to this problem. **[11]** QFT is currently the most widely accepted fundamental quantum theory. **[12]** Besides special relativity, the **Standard Model** incorporates all known interactions except gravity. Attempts to include gravity, which is still separately described by non-quantized general relativity, have not yet succeeded. This failure is one of the outstanding challenges to physics today. A multi-time version of QFT **[13]** may ultimately be required to address this and other problems with the Standard Model.

The traditional method for computing interaction probabilities for elementary particles in standard QFT involves drawing **Feynman diagrams** of all the ways an interaction can occur (including the creation and destruction of intermediary **virtual particles**), and then summing the likelihoods of the drawings. Because QFT at present does not properly handle events at very short distances and high energies, infinities are encountered in this process. For most forces (but not gravity), these can be removed by a **renormalization** procedure, resulting in an **effective field theory**. **[14]**

The proposed origin of our world's three extended spatial dimensions (ascribed to the octan physicist Wittuu) is speculative, and not grounded in any substantiated theory. Over the past century, physicists have proposed various explanations for the dimensionality of nature. Much modern theoretical work involves some variant of **(super)string theory**, or more recently **M-theory**, that seeks to unify all consistent versions of superstring theory. **[15]** Elementary particles are no longer regarded as points, but are instead treated as extended objects – originally tiny vibrating strings (either open-ended or closed loops), or more recently miniscule higher-dimensional surfaces. Particle world lines are replaced by **world sheets**. These formulations naturally require either six (superstrings) or seven (M-theory) extra dimensions, in addition to the standard four (3+1) spacetime dimensions, for mathematical consistency. The extra dimensions are either **compactified** to very small scales, or our world inhabits a 3+1 dimensional subspace, known as a **brane**, of a larger macroscopic system. In the latter case, all particle interactions (except gravity) and motions would be restricted to the brane. It is also possible that separate physical universes exist with macroscopic branes of dimensionality smaller or larger than 3+1, but intelligent life cannot evolve in such worlds, due to inhospitable laws of physics. In this case, by a **weak anthropic** argument, we can only find ourselves in a universe with three large spatial dimensions and one time dimension. **[16]**

Though string theory is still in its infancy, it can in principle be formulated as a QFT, but without the need for renormalization. Quantum gravity is itself a natural feature of string theory, without the intractable infinities generated by standard quantum field theoretic approaches. While other avenues are also being actively pursued to develop a viable quantum theory of gravity (most notably, **loop quantum gravity**), string theory offers a grand unification of all known interactions. **[17]** Yet novel predictions may be untestable for the foreseeable future, as the relevant distance scales are so small (~10^{-33} cm).

There have been various other attempts to reformulate QFT, both to simplify and to extend the range of computations. Traditional QFT calculations using Feynman diagrams can be extremely arduous, involving a huge number of terms even for simple processes. One attempt to facilitate the mathematics suggests that a **scattering amplitude** – a basic quantity defining the probability that a given set of particles will transform into another set upon colliding – may be equivalent to the volume of a new type of geometric object in higher dimensions. One version of this **polyhedron** analogue, that does not incorporate gravity, has been called an **amplituhedron**. **[18]** Important features of the physical universe, such as **unitarity** (the sum of the probabilities of competing processes must equal one) and **locality** (a particle is directly affected only by its immediate environs), appear to be emergent properties of the amplituhedron, rather than innate. The traditional view of particles moving through spacetime may even be illusory. Alternatively, the amplituhedron may simply be a convenient calculation tool, and reflect the underlying mathematical structure of our world in part *because* it is compatible with unitarity and other fundamental principles.

Fleegello's account of **quantum time** is highly speculative, and not based on conventional human physics. Spacetime is still assumed to be continuous both in conventional QFT and in current versions of string theory. While many theorists feel that spacetime must be quantized in any ultimate theory, it is not yet clear how this may be accomplished, and still preserve sacrosanct symmetry principles. It should be noted that no serious attempt to date suggests that gravity is a natural consequence of time quantization (though in loop quantum gravity, quantization of general relativity gives spacetime a discreet structure). Of course, a fictional character like Fleegello is free to playfully speculate on such matters to his heart's content!

A highly technical review of discrete time mechanics has been recently published by **George Jaroszkiewicz**. **[19]** Farias and Recami have also published a paper on various attempts to quantize time. **[20]** They note that time discretization can be achieved either by attributing a discrete structure to time – the approach followed by Fleegello (for proper time scales along particle world lines) – *or* by considering time as a continuum in which events occur only at discrete instants. The authors discuss an extension of a proposed theory by P. Caldirola that follows the second approach. Here the **chronon**, or quantum of time, has a value much larger than the Planck time. This value is further not universal, but dependent on the system under examination.

Quantization of spacetime should reduce the **information content** of the physical world. Whether or not spacetime is quantized is thus related to the unresolved question of whether the physical (pan)universe contains a finite or an infinite amount of information. An ideobasic argument has been advanced that, if the physical universe is a subset of a unified conscious field (the Consistency Idea Field), then it must be possible to definitively locate each and every bit of information within it. Any elusive content would not meaningfully exist. This in turn may require that the information content be finite (though outrageously vast). Alternatively, infinite information content may be permissible, so long as the infinity is countable (the elements can be put in one-to-one correspondence with the set of natural numbers). The author personally finds the thought of a truly infinite consciousness particularly alien, and even frightening. While humans can conceptualize continuous dimensions and infinity, human consciousness appears finite in extent. Yet this in itself does not preclude the existence of an infinite awareness.

The names of the fictional Jopian researchers found in Fleegello's critique are derived from humans who investigated related topics, as listed below.

__ Planko__ – German physicist

Planck (reluctantly) helped beginthe human quantum revolution in 1900, when he postulated that electromagnetic energy could only be emitted in quantized form. He further proposed that the energy of each quantum is proportional to both the frequency of the radiation, and the so-called

__ Niestu__ – German-born theoretical physicist

Einstein introduced both the

__ Noethra__ – German mathematician

Noether helped explain the connection between physical symmetries and conservation laws. Her work showed, for example, that if the equations of physics are unaffected by displacements in time and space, then it is possible to define quantities

__ Shrodo__ – Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger (1887–1961)

In addition to other significant contributions to the new quantum physics and to physics in general, Schrödinger formulated the differential wave equation describing the time development of a quantum system. He shared the 1933 Nobel Prize in physics for this work, and is sometimes referred to as the "father of quantum mechanics."

__ Draci__ – English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac (1902–1984)

Among many important contributions that furthered the development of quantum theory, Dirac proposed the Dirac equation, which describes the time development of fermions (elementary particles with half-integral spin), and predicted the existence of antimatter. He shared the 1933 Nobel Prize in Physics.

__ Vigno__ – Hungarian-American physicist and mathematician

Wigner made many cross-disciplinary contributions to physics. He shared the 1962 Noble Prize in physics, in recognition of his work on

__ Evette__ – American physicist

Everett proposed the first version of what is now commonly known as the

__ Wittuu__ – American theoretical physicist

Witten has made important contributions to research in

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